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Basic Examinations for Female

Basic Examinations for Female


1. Hormone Study

Purpose:
To estimate the rate of potentially successful pregnancy and if there are any hormonal imbalanaces that causes infertility.

Procedure:
Simple blood test.
The following is a list of items the doctor may possibly order to be tested in a hormonal study based on a patient’s existing symptons/ conditions:
  • Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormones (FSH)
  • Prolactin (PRL)
  • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and/ or Free thyroxine (Free T4)
  • Testosterone

When to test:
Best time to test will depend on each patient’s condition and their hormone levels at various points during the menstrual cycle. The doctor will discuss further on testing schedule. In order to estimate the ovarian function by FSH, the 1st to 3rd day of the menstrual cycle will be used as a basis.

Advantages:
Easy, convenient and accurate

Disadvantages:
Discomfort and slight bleeding due to blood tests. No side effects determined.

Reminders:
Certain periods during the menstrual cycle determine the type of hormone present at that time. Therefore, the best times to test for individual hormones will be coordinated according to each patient’s cycle. The doctor shall interpret the results based on his professional judgement.


2. Hysterosalpingography (HSG)

Purpose:
HSG is an X-Ray test to examine the condition of the fallopian tubes and uterus to determine if there are any blocked tubes, abnormal uterine structures or growths.

1/4 of infertility in women is caused by problems in their uterus or fallopian tubes.

Procedure:
  • Patient will be asked to lie on her back on the examination table with feet raised and supported by stirrups. 
  • The doctor shall then insert a speculum into the vagina to spread the vaginal walls and examine the cervix. After holding the cervic in place with a tenaculum, it is washed and a catheter or cannula is inserted into the uterus. 
  • X-ray dye is put through the tube. If fallopian tubes are open, dye will flow through it, spilling freely into the belly. X-ray pictures are seen on the monitor.

When to test:
After menstrual period and before ovulation. If cycle is regular (28 days), it is best to conduct the HSG on the 7th -11th day of the cycle.

Advantages:
Easy, convenient and with 80%-90% accuracy.

Disadvantages:
There is a chance of inflammation, bloating and abdominal pain, headache or dizziness and a feeling of nausea. If conducted by an experienced doctor, potential for any pain is decreased. Since HSG uses an X-ray dye, it can not be done to women having their menstrual period or too close to the onset of their cycle. With the advances in technology, HSG has become more accurate.

Reminders:
After HSG is done, rest and lie down for a few minutes to avoid any dizziniess or headaches. Drinking lukewarm water can help. It is normal to experience slight abdominal pains and bleeding.

There are many ways to examine the fallopian tubes for any blockages and the uterus for abnormalities. HSG is one of the easiest and most accurate methods.

3. Transvaginal Sonography (TVS)


Purpose:
Sonography (sona) is used to check the interval reproductive organs for any abnormalities, including the cervix, uterus, ovary and endometrium lining. It is also used to estimate ovulation period and measure uterine wall thickness.

Procedure:
  • Patient will be asked to lie on her back on the examiation table with feet raised and supported by stirrups. 
  • The sona technician will cover the probe with a condom and gel, and then, insert it into the vagina slowly. The probe sends out sound waves, reflecting body structures to the computer, creating pictures.

When to test:

Best done on the 11th - 12th day of the menstrual period. TVS can be conducted once every 2 days until the oocyte reaches maturity.

Advantages:
Easy, convenient, economical and ovulation may be determined. Since it is using sona, there is no need to worry about x-ray.

Disadvantages:
None determined at the moment

Reminders:
TVS is done with an empty bladder.

Stork Fertility Center送子鳥 Stork Fertility Center送子鳥 Author

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