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Male factor is one of the important issues in the infertility. Azoospermia is one of the tricky things in the male infertility. If a problem occurred in the procedure of spermatogenesis (sperm production) or sperm transport, it results in azoospermia, which means no sperms found in the ejaculated semen.

In the patients with non-obstructive azoospermia, testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is required to obtain the sperms for IVF.

Conducting the diagnostic testic biopsy can help to evaluate the possibility of finding available sperms on the day of TESE. If it results in either normal or hypo-spermatogenesis, the possibility increases; if it results in maturation arrest or sertoli-cell-only, the possibility decreases.

Now the microdissection-TESE(micro-TESE) has been more prevalent in the treatment of patients with Klinefelter's syndrome. Selecting the available seminiferous tubule can be performed under the microscopy. Generally, a seminiferous tube with diameter 300μm is more promising.

Sometimes, the touch-print-smear is conducted with the micro-TESE. It may help the diagnosis.

The sperm retrieval rate of touch-print smear:
Maturation arrest
Leydig cell predominant and tubular hyalinization
Sertoli cell only

Stork Fertility Center Stork Fertility Center Author


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  2. Azoospermia is the deficiency of sperms in the semen of a male, which is linked with very low levels of fertility or even sterility. Natural infertility treatment especially made to increase healthful sperm formation and improves a man’s chances of becoming a father. Read More

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